Teaching Activities

The collection of teaching activities are distributed over three main pillars: Ethics and Values, Designers and Stakeholders and Technology and design. The activities can be filtered by selecting which design phase the teaching activity should address, the complexity level (according to the SOLO taxonomy: Unistructural, Multistructural, Relational, Extended abstract), and how much time needed for running the activity (Short: 1/2 day, Medium: 1-2 days, Long: more than 2 days).


Ethics & Values
Designers & Stakeholders
Technology & Design


We three main pillars to structure the teaching activities: Ethics and Values, Designers and Stakeholders, and Technology and Design. The three pillars aim to cover what we consider the main knowledge and skills for becoming a responsible designer: the theoretical background, a focus on different stakeholder needs, as well as the skills to actively engage with technology and values in the design process.

Ethics & Values

The Ethics and Values pillar explains the underlying theoretical foundations that students need in order to take ethics and values into account, both in their methods and in their design process, as well as in taking responsibility for their end product or service.

Overarching learning objectives:
  • Recognise and describe different values
  • Critically reflect on how values are manifested in design

Designers & Stakeholders

The Designers and Stakeholders pillar addresses methods and processes for students to ethically engage with different stakeholders and their values, acknowledging that they themselves are stakeholders too.

Overarching learning objectives:
  • Identify and describe direct and indirect stakeholders of a design
  • Elicit stakeholder values
  • Identify possible tensions between different stakeholder values and imagine how to mediate these tensions in a design

Technology & Design

The Technology and Design pillar addresses methods and processes that allow students to practically design and evaluate products and services with values in mind.

Overarching learning objectives:
  • Integrate values into the design process
  • Analyse and critically reflect on the impact of a design (draft) and its manifested values in context

Solo Taxonomy level

The difficulty level of the teaching activities is set by The Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO) taxonomy. This is a five-tier hierarchical framework for structuring learning outcomes. The SOLO taxonomy provides a tool for defining curriculum objectives, intended learning outcomes, and evaluating learning outcomes based on these objectives.

Progression can be defined as moving up in SOLO levels, from unistructural, to multistructural, relational, and up to extended abstract level as the highest level. Each level in the SOLO taxonomy is represented by a number of verbs that can be used to formulate learning goals, as in the Curriculum compass.


One aspect of a task is picked up or understood serially, and there is no relationship of facts or ideas.


Two or more aspects of a task are picked up or understood serially, but are not interrelated.


Several aspects are integrated so that the whole has a coherent structure and meaning.

Extended Abstract

That coherent whole is generalised to a higher level of abstraction.

Design Phases

Value Theory

This meta-design phase is important for students who are about to start designing with values. Through teaching activities in this phase, students gain theoretical base knowledge of different approaches and frameworks for ethics and values in design. Building on this theoretical understanding, the students will be able to carry out the activities in the following phases more effectively.


In this phase, relevant information is gathered around the initial design brief. This includes information regarding direct and indirect stakeholders, their values and the relationships and tensions between them. The values of the designers (students) themselves are also analyzed and reflected upon.


In this phase, research findings are clustered. Insights evolve and potential areas of opportunity are identified. Students build the foundation to frame and specify the initial design brief.


In this phase, students generate value-sensative ideas based on their reframed design brief through different ideation activities. Moreover, students choose ideas to produce in the form of prototypes.


In this phase, students test their prototypes with a focus on values. The values are embodied in the prototypes, and, one by one, they are investigated together with stakeholders and reflected upon in order to improve the design solutions.