Designers and Stakeholders
In this teaching activity, students will learn to identify the main project values at the end of a stakeholder research phase in the design process. Based on an analysis of empirical data, students can argue for the chosen project values, and through this argumentation relate back to the use situations that they have observed.
Becoming aware of the underlying project values at the beginning of a project – even before the idea sketching phase begins – is just as important as identifying the problem situation or design opening that students are designing for.
Upon entering the second half of the first diamond in the Double Diamond design process model (Design Council, 2021), students review their user research data through for example an affinity diagram (IDF, 2021) and identify four underlying project values. In this analysis phase, most experienced designers might have a gut feeling what the underlying project values are. However, this teaching activity makes it very explicit by enabling a design team to anchor what they identify as the four main project values in their empirical research.
The four project values should be regarded as provisional, and can serve as material for discussion throughout the design project. For example in a dialogue with stakeholders, where the student group later can introduce stakeholders to the project values, and negotiate the project values through an iterative process. Furthermore, the project values might serve as triggers for a discussion with stakeholders how to deal with value tensions, and how to concretely manifest the project values in a product, system or service.
After the teaching activity students will be able to:
The students should be done with the user/stakeholder research phase of their project, and they should have analysed the related data and gathered enough insights to formulate the problem or the design opening.
In addition to this, the students should have performed at least some of the prerequisite teaching activities listed (see Related teaching activities).
The teaching activity is divided into three steps.
To assess whether the intended learning outcomes were attained by the teaching activity the following assessment activities can be carried out (in class or after class).
Assess students' learning by asking them to create a value-based video pitch (summative assessment) focusing on presenting their worksheet to stakeholders along with their analysis of empirical data, argument for its four project values and relations to use situations. They should end the pitch by posing some questions that bring project values up for discussion with stakeholders.
Assess students' learning by asking them to create a timeline of the values within the design process (ipsative assessment) focusing on how values evolve through the interactions with stakeholders containing 1) values evolving from empirical data, 2) values change evolving from working with values identification through the worksheet, 3) values change evolving from presenting and discussing the worksheet with stakeholders, and 4) the values found in the final design prototype.
In the assessment activity ask students to focus on:
Design council (2021). The double diamond design model. Retrieved on 2021-04-15 from https://www.designcouncil.org.uk/news-opinion/what-framework-innovation-design-councils-evolved-double-diamond
Interaction design Foundation (IDF) (2021). Affinity Diagrams – Learn How to Cluster and Bundle Ideas and Facts. Retrieved on 2021-04-15 from https://www.interaction-design.org/literature/article/affinity-diagrams-learn-how-to-cluster-and-bundle-ideas-and-facts